Material substitution of wood involves either factor substitution (e.g. in the construc- . about sustainable forest management, tropical deforestation and the forest dieback .. Political and global drivers: Compliance with international laws and
This 4th chapter examines current and future demand for wood products REDD+ wood non-timber forest products. Zero Net Deforestation and Forest Degradation (ZNDD): WWF . a compostable bio-polymer substitute .. A 10 per cent increase in milling efficiency for tropical .. with, for example, over 50 laws enacted.
Jun 20, 2017 You can only sell timber products on the European market when you The EUTR is part of the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan. . substitution of solvents to learn more about how to reduce VOCs. lower in the market for tropical timber and tropical timber products.
biomass and harvested wood products: Perspective 2030 - Final. Report. Braunschweig: stitution of wood products for functionally equivalent materials and substitution of wood for other sources of .. FLEGT:Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade .. version, i.e. mostly tropical deforestation). Thus already today
term it is likely that the demand for tropical hardwood plantation grown will be lost to substitute wood and non-wood products. Keywords: hardwoods, plantations .. Act 1998 did not explicitly exempt planted timber from the requirement of a
The main markets for tropical timber products are: .. However, at the lower end of the market, substitution by alternative materials, most particularly wood panel
Tropical wood flooring imports have grown to become one of the largest uses of or wood products, it is not an assurance that the wood or product is certified. its environmental policies, claiming to adhere to the Canadian Forest Act and
Oct 5, 2015 The first type of substitution used non-wood products that were mostly more Schulze E-D, Körner C, Law BE, Haberl H, Luyssaert S (2012) Large-scale . (2009) Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests.
As wood is the only significant building material that is grown, we have a . Some tropical trees may not produce annual growth rings due to their constant growth. ..  concludes that European forests act as carbon sinks even in the (or fossil-fuel substitution) for energy supply without serving as wood products (Fig.
Aug 3, 2012 Chapter 44 covers wood and wood products under heading codes 4401 to 4421. they are, or are made from, coniferous, deciduous or tropical wood. .. also be produced by slicing blocks of laminated wood - as a substitute for veneer .. Crime, justice and the law · Disabled people · Driving and transport.
Mar 13, 2018 Beverly E. Law, Tara W. Hudiburg, Logan T. Berner, Jeffrey J. Kent, Polly C. . live 800 y or more and biomass can exceed that of tropical forests (11) (Fig. despite carbon benefits of storage in wood products and substitution for Hence, combining fire and net wood product emissions, the forest sector
Mar 25, 2014 Tracking global trade flows for tropical hardwood products is extremely . timber product taken in violation of laws of producer and •substitute.
Oct 24, 2017 The end product is a wood with similar acoustic properties to prized tropical woods like ebony, used in violin and viola-making, or grenadilla,
Wood products are an integral part of the managed forest ecosystem and the forest The total fuelwood consumption in tropical countries increased from 1.3 to 1.7 For construction of small buildings in New Zealand, the carbon substitution